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A Guide to Coffee Roasting Coffee is a brewed drink, which is loved all over the world and in time memorial for its flavorful aroma, which is produced from drying and roasting green coffee beans. The process of producing coffee is by roasting the green coffee beans on a gradual phase such that when the desired temperature is reached, an aroma, which is characteristic of coffee, is emitted and the roasted beans are now in a state which can be referred to as coffee. Green coffee beans contain levels of amino acids, protein, sugars and caffeine, a stimulant which is linked with the central nervous system, but as soon as they are roasted, a Maillard reaction takes place, which is a chemical reaction between amino acids and sugars take place, and the effect is brown, roasted beans that possess a distinct aroma and flavor. It takes years of trials and errors to perfectly roast green coffee beans into good, quality coffee. Only coffee masters know how to produce the four categories of roasted coffee – light, medium, medium-dark, and dark. All categories give that aromatic smell but the flavor of each differs.
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Coffee roasters know when the coffee beans are roasted into which category based on the sound it produces during roasting and at specific temperatures, such that at 196 degrees Centigrade the first crack sound is produced, marking the beginning of a light roast coffee, and at 224 degrees Centigrade, the second crack is sounded.
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Light roasts coffee are light brown in color and characteristic of having no presence of oil on the surface because they have not been roasted long enough for the oils to come out. Common examples in the market of light roast coffee are known as Light City, Half City, and Cinnamon Coffee. Roasting further the light roast coffee can produce what is known as medium roast coffee, which is of medium brown, has a stronger flavor than light roast coffee and, still, non-oily. Medium roast coffee is perfect for breakfast, that’s why it is commonly referred to as Breakfast Coffee and other names are City Coffee and American Coffee. While with medium dark roast coffee, it has that rich, dark color where some oil breaks out on the surface, giving a slight bittersweet aftertaste. Medium dark roast coffee is also referred to as Full City coffee. These are the distinct characteristics of dark roast coffee – shiny due to the oil that comes out during roasting, has a bitter taste, less acidity and slightly dark to charred color. Dark roast coffee are popularly preferred by most people, that’s why it comes in many commercial names, such as High, Continental, New Orleans, European, Espresso, Viennese, Italian, and French.